Glossary new

Invasive Species

An organism (usually exotic) that has few if any predators and spreads or reproduces aggressively and disturbs the natural ecosystem where it has been introduced

Keystone species

A plant or animal that plays a special, important role in the way an ecosystem functions, and without it, the ecosystem would be very different or would not exist at all.

Larvae

An insect after it hatches from an egg and before it changes into a pupa. Caterpillars are an example of this stage of an insect’s life.

Laurel Wilt

Fungal disease that affects redbay and sassafras trees in the coastal plain of the Southeast but also threatens other members of the Laurel family like avocado.

Leaves

A flat part of a plant or tree that grows from the stem or branch and is usually green

Lithocarpus

Latin name for the tanoak genus - one of the types of trees that is most susceptible to Ramorum Blight (aka Sudden Oak Death)

Manuka

A shrub or small tree native to New Zealand and southeast Australia that produces a oil that is attractive to EAB and is used to bait purple box traps.

Maple

A favorite of ALB, this tree provides us with beautiful fall color and delicious syrup for our pancakes!

Mycangia

Structures on the body of an animal (often pits or pouches) that are used to carry its symbiotic fungi

Mycology

The scientific study of mushrooms and other fungi

Native Species

An organism found naturally in a given place

Offspring

The babies, or young, that come from a particular parent organism.

Omnivore

An organism that eats a variety of food that comes from both plants and animals.

Oomycete

Latin name for the class of organisms commonly known as water molds.

Oviposition site

Oval or round depression that adult female wood boring insects like ALB chews into the tree bark so that she can lay an egg there. One ALB typically creates 35-90 of these spots in a single tree!

Palms

A group of tropical plants with a simple stem and large, feather-shaped or fan-shaped leaves.  In palms, all of the new leaves are produced from one point at the very top of the stem.

Pathogen

A tiny living thing that causes disease such as viruses, bacteria, and other germs.

Pest

That which is harmful or destructive, as certain insects to certain crops

Pheromone

A chemical substance produced by an animal to elicit a response or behavior (often attract) another animal of the same species. These substances are being used to trap and monitor the spread of ALB, cool!

Phloem

Soft tissue that is used to conduct food in plants but can be damaged by burrowing insects like ALB & EAB which weakens and eventually kills the tree.

Phytophthora ramorum

The fungus-like microorganism that causes Ramorum Blight (aka Sudden Oak Death or SOD)

Polyphagous

Able to eat many different kinds of food

Pupa

An insect in a middle stage of its development, after it is a larva. During this stage the insects do not eat or move; they are changing into their adult form.

Purple

A color that is a mix of red and blue and is attractive to EAB. Special triangular boxes of this color are sometimes hung in trees to detect, and trap the Green Menace.

Queen

An adult female insect (often an ant, bee, or termite) that is capable of laying eggs.

Quercus

Latin name for the oak genus. Some oak species are susceptible to Ramorum Blight (aka Sudden Oak Death) while others are not.

Raffaelea lauricola

Latin name of the fungus that causes Laurel Wilt. This fungus colonizes the xylem cells of host trees, preventing them from conducting water, which damages and eventually kills the tree. Infected wood is usually stained a dark color.

Ramorum Blight

A plant disease caused by a fungus-like microorganism called a water mold that threatens oak and tanoak forests on the west coast. This disease can also be carried by a lot of other trees and shrubs even though it may not kill them!

Red Bay

A semi-evergreen coastal plain species in the Southeast that is closely related to avocado and is threatened by Laurel wilt. Leaves from this tree are often used as a spice in soups.

Redbay Ambrosia Beetle

A small beetle, 2 mm long, slender, cylindrical, and brown-black in color that is native to native to India, Japan, Myanmar, and Taiwan that found its way to the U.S. and carries the fungus that causes the deadly Laurel Wilt.

Reforestation

The process of planting new trees in places where the original forest has been cut down or destroyed by fire, disease, or insects.

Resistance

The natural ability of an organism to fight off pests or pathogens or be less damaged by them.

Roots

The part of a plant that grows under the ground and take in water and food, and they hold the plant in the soil

Rust

Any of several plant diseases marked by reddish brown or black spots on the leaves, stems, and other parts, or the parasitic fungi that cause these diseases.

Sap

The liquid within a plant that carries food and nutrients to all of its parts. Sap contains a lot of sugars, and is a nutritious food source for pests like the Asian citrus psyllid and the coconut rhinoceros beetle.

Sassafras

A deciduous tree with lobed leaves that was once used as a major ingredient in root beer. This tree is threatened by Laurel wilt.

Scale

Any of numerous four-winged sucking insects, the females of which cover themselves with a round, waxy scale, under which they live on plants and deposit their eggs.

Species

A group of living things that can mate with one another but not with those of other groups

Spiracles

Small breathing holes that are usually located on the sides of an insect.

Spore

A tiny particle produced for reproduction by a mature bacteria, plant, or fungus that can grow into a new organism. The spread of spores often occurs through infected plant material, rainwater, and soil.

Spread

Scatter or disperse to cover a larger area

Sudden Oak Death

Also known as Ramorum blight, this disease has caused rapid decline and death of tanoak and oak trees in the western U.S.

Summer

The season that ALB  and EAB adults emerge, begin feeding and mate. Some females travel long distances before they pick a new tree to lay their eggs in which causes their rapid spread to new areas!

Symbiotic

Describes a relationship between very different species that are dependent upon one another, such as the relationship between the polyphagous shot hole borer beetle and the fungus that it eats, Fusarium euwallaceae.

Tanoak

One of the types of trees that is most susceptible trees to Sudden Oak Death

Tarsi

The segments of an insect’s leg that are farthest from its body.  In adults, they are divided into five flexible pieces.

Thorax

The second or middle part of an insect’s body. This is where the insect’s legs and wings are attached.

Tree

A woody plant that has a long main trunk, many branches and usually grows quite tall

Vector

An organism, often an insect, that carries a disease-causing organism from one host to another

Virus

Any of a large group of submicroscopic agents that reproduce only in living cells and are disease-producing in humans, animals, and plants.

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